What is the quantum theory?
"In physics, a theory based on using the concept of the quantum unit to describe the dynamic properties of subatomic particles and the interactions of matter and radiation. The foundation was laid by the German physicist Max Planck, who postulated in 1900 that energy can be emitted or absorbed by matter only in small, discrete units called quanta. Also fundamental to the development of quantum mechanics was the uncertainty principle, formulated by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg in 1927, which states that the position and momentum of a subatomic particle cannot be specified simultaneously."
Life is made up atoms and these atoms behave in a quantum manner? The reason behind this is that these particles can have the ability to behave like waves. In the early 1800's a scientist, Thomas Young conducted an experiment where he sent out a light beam through two slits and what he discovered that the light beam had created a pattern of dark and light bands and therefore proved that tiny particles can behave like a wave. In further experiments it was seen that electrons could be like waves.
What is the mechanical model theory?
- The locations and motions of the electrons are described by their matter waves.
- These wave patterns are used to predict definite energy levels, explain chemical bonding by electrons, and when applied to particles in the nucleus it predicts new nuclear particles.
Bohr’s development of Rutherford’s planetary model had begun the process of introducing quantum theory to the structure of the atom 9hydrogen atom) and at first introduced that at which states atoms were stable. His theory did not include other atoms so it wasn't until Heisenberg and Schrödinger to explain the quantized energy levels of atoms. Heisenberg used matrices and Schrödinger developed a wave equation. It is solutions of Schrödinger‘s equation that provide pictures of electrons’ probability densities around the nucleus of an atom.
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle stated that the location and momentum of a particle cannot be measure with exact preciseness ( wave shown in below image)
So, what does smell and taste have to do with quantum theory?
The theory suggests that our sense of smell isn't controlled just by the olfactory receptors in our nose but by molecular vibrations that are distinct for every molecule. In a study conducted, where hydrogen atoms and deuterim were taken under observation because they have the same shape but had different vibrations. In the second video of this section, an experiment was conducted with fruitflies and th result was that fruitflies were able to distinguish between molecules that had the same shape and molecular vibration.